Biology

General characteristics of living systems
The history of the earth and origin of life on earth. Living systems, their origin and evolution. An individual and a species. Features of organisms, their dependence on the environment, taxonomy. Evolution, Darwinism.

Structure of living systems
Chemical composition of living systems. Non-cellular forms of living systems. The cell – basic unit of living systems. Prokaryotic cell, eukaryotic cell. Cellular metabolism. Cell division. Chromosomes, gene expression, DNA replication. Chemical composition of cells, cellular organelles. Unicellular organisms. Multicellular organisms, metabolism, control of processes in organisms, reproduction. Vital functions and individual development of organisms (viruses, bacteria, unicellular organisms, fungi, plants, animals). Animal colonies and societies (“individuals of higher order”).

Genetics
Molecular and cytologic basis of inheritance. Recombination and mutation. Mendelism, heredity in multicellular organisms. Basic population genetics.

Zoology
Animal metabolism, body temperature. Gas exchange between animals and environment, circulation of internal fluids, excretion. Hormonal and neural regulation. Senses. Locomotion. Ontogeny. Classification and phylogeny of invertebrates and vertebrates. Ethology, geographic distribution of animals.
Protozoans (Protozoa). Origins of multicellularity. Sponges (Porifera), cnidarians (Cnidaria), ctenophores (Ctenophora), flatworms (Platyhelminthes), nematodes (Nematoda), rotifers (Rotifera), molluscs (Mollusca), annelids (Annelida), arthropods (Arthropoda), echinoderms (Echinodermata), chordates (Chordata).

Human biology
Human evolution. Skeletal, muscular, circulatory (including blood), respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive, integumentary, sensory, regulatory systems. Ontogeny. Health and disease.

Botany
Structure of plant cell, tissues, vital functions and individual development of plants. Nutrition and respiration in plants. Plant movements. Lower plants, higher plants, fungi.

Ecology
Organisms and environment, populations, biological communities, ecosystems. Ecological niche.
Abiotic and biotic components of environment. Trophic (food) ecology. Environmental care. Nature conservation. Domestication and breeding of laboratory animals.